Local Loads

Stresses caused by external local loads are a major
concern to designers of pressure vessels. The techniques for
analyzing local stresses and the methods of handling these
loadings to keep these stresses within prescribed limits has
been the focus of much research. Various theories and
techniques have been proposed and investigated by
experimental testing to verify the accuracy of the solutions.
Clearly the most significant findings and solutions are
those developed by Professor P. P. Bijlaard of Cornell
University in the 1950s. These investigations were sponsored
by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the
Welding Research Council. His findings have formed the
basis of Welding Research Council Bulletin #107, an
internationally accepted method for analyzing stresses due
to local loads in cylindrical and spherical shells. The “Bijlaard
Curves,” illustrated in several sections of this chapter,
provide a convenient and accurate method of analysis.

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